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Issue-2 October, 15, 2004

From the Editor

 The second issue of the Heterodox Economics Newsletter has expended in content—heterodox economists apparently are doing more things and want to get other heterodox economists engaged or at least let them know what they are doing.  To make the Newsletter manageable, I plan on sending it out on the 15th and 30th of each month, give or take a couple of days.  So if you want me to send you material out in the Newsletter please send it to me by the 12th and 27th of each month.  I would also like to add that the Newsletter is not an e-journal in that it does not publish papers or act like a journal in any way.  If you want to publish an article in a heterodox e-journal, send it to the Post-Autistic Economics Review at

 I would like to call your attention to the call for nominees for the ICAPE Executive Director.  John Harvey is stepping down and a new director is needed.  Please consider taking up this very important position.  Heterodox economists and their associations need to work together and ICAPE provides the structure for this cooperation.  Without ICAPE and the joint/collective efforts it has promoted, the world of heterodox economics would be a sadder and more inhospitable place.  A second point is of course the call for papers for my Conference on Radical Economics in the 20th Century.  Finally, you will notice that UMKC has a job advert.  If anybody wants to contact me about it, please do so.  

Fred Lee

In this issue:

- Call for Paper

- Conferences, Seminars and Lectures

- Job Postings for Heterodox Economists

- Heterodox Conference Papers and Reports

- Heterodox Journals and Newsletters

- New Heterodox Books and Book Series

- Heterodox Graduate Program

- Heterodox  Associations

- Heterodox Web Sites


Call for Papers

Conference on Radical Economics in the 20th Century:  Radical Economics and the Labor Movement

Date: 15 - 17 September 2005

Place: Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering and Technology
adjacent to University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, United States

2005 will be the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Industrial Workers of the World, the most radical union in North America. To commemorate the anniversary, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) is hosting a conference on radical economics. The Conference theme is the role of radical economics in the labor movement in the United States and around the world. Radical economics includes but is not restricted to anarchism, Marxism, syndicalism, radical Institutionalism, left-wing Keynesianism, and plain old-fashion radical economics. Proposals on any aspect of the theme are invited.

For detailed information: IWWCONF.doc

Association for Institutional Thought 2005 Conference – theme:  The Methodology of Institutional Economics

Association for Institutional Thought (AFIT) conference will be held in Albuquerque, NM in April.

You may find the call for papers either at:


The AFIT conference is part of the Western Social Science Association annual conference.

For the conference information, dates, hotels, etc... visit

For detailed information: AFIT2005call.pdf

3rd SCEME Seminar in Economic Methodology

3rd SCEME Seminar in Economic Methodology on 'Systems in the Economy, Theory

and Modelling', Friday, 26 November 2004, University of Stirling, UK.

Seminar contributions in the form of the presentation of a paper, or work-in-progress, or an extended discussion of a relevant monograph. Please submit a one-page proposal by Wednesday 27 October to: Sheila Dow

Stirling Centre for Economic Methodology

Department of Economics

University of Stirling

Stirling FK9 4LA



The one-day workshop is open to all who are interested in engaging in discussion on the topic, whether or not they submit a proposal to lead discussion with a paper or other contribution. Further details and the registration form are posted on the SCEME website,; the final programme will be posted there in due course. The deadline for registrations will be 12 November.

Association for Heterodox Economics 7th Annual Conference

Pluralism in Economics

15 – 17 July, 2005
City University, London, UK

For detailed information: Call for AHE 2005 (2).doc

Gide Conference:  Do Laws Exist in Economics

Universite de Lille is holding the biennial conference of the french «Association Charles GIDE pour l’etude de la pensee economique» next Fall (22, 23 & 24 September 2005) in University of Lille I (North of France) on the topic «Do Laws exist in Economics? ». If there are no laws, or if there is no unified body of laws constituting a system, to what extend can economics be considered as a science or an art? If there are laws, what are they and how does economics constitute itself by bringing them to light, testing their empirical validity and endowing them with a rational basis?These questions suggest a number of tracks. For instance : Semantic track : to what extent do the attribution of an economist’s name to a law or the association of economists’ names with other terms (effects, equilibrium…) reveal the place the discipline attributes in its development to the history of economic thought? Historical track: what are the great and small laws that economists have formulated during modern times and how have their representations of these evolved? Malthus’ Law, Engel’s Law, Say’s Law or Walras’ Law, the law of supply and demand, etc… Analytical track: in what sense have some of these great or small laws constituted signs of opposition or mutual recognition between different schools and doctrines? Philosophical track: how did economics break free of morality and moral laws on justice and on justice and benevolence in affirming a domain where only the ‘law of self interest’ rules? How did it break free of politics in affirming the existence of a sphere, independent of any monetary institution where the ‘Law of value’ only rules?

If you are interested in presenting a paper, please open the website of the conference : and follow the instructions for the submission of an abstract of about 3 pages. The deadline for submissions is : 8 December 2004.
Paper proposals must provide information about the author (name, address, institutional affiliation) and the title of the contribution.

Arnaud Berthoud & Bernard Delmas, USTL (Universite de Lille 1)


Mailing Address:
Colloque Charles Gide,
c/o Veronique Testelin,
Universite de Lille 1, bat. S.H. 2
Faculte des sciences Economiques et sociales
59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex FRANCE

Trading Justice:  NAFTA’s New Links and Conflicts

The Center for Research on Women and the Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change at the University of Memphis invite proposals for papers to be delivered March   24-26, 2005 at a multidisciplinary, international symposium on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The symposium will be held at the Fogelman Executive Center on the campus of the University of Memphis.

Proposals that address social inequality and social justice activism, both locally within NAFTA’s signatory countries and across borders, are particularly encouraged. Appropriate topics include, but are not limited to, labor activism and worker-to-worker exchanges, local community impacts and civic engagement, the environmental consequences of NAFTA, gender and im/migration, citizenship and racial/ethnic identities, and transnational communities. Papers that include descriptions of specific research experiences and methodological concerns from projects examining NAFTA’s effects during the past decade are especially welcome. Scholarship that explores the future development and possible implications of the NAFTA corridor (I-69, for which Memphis, Tennessee lies at the mid-point) is also of interest. 

Interested scholars and activists/practitioners should submit a proposal of approximately 500 words (excluding references) that summarizes their topic, methods of investigation and conclusions. A brief biographical statement and full contact information should also be included. To ensure consideration, proposals must be received by November 1, 2004 at the address below: 

NAFTA Symposium

Center for Research on Women

The University of Memphis

Clement Hall 337

Memphis, TN 38152

Authors will be notified of the results of their submission by December 15, 2004. Food and lodging expenses at the symposium will be covered for authors of successful proposals. Limited travel assistance is also available, with priority given to participants from Mexico, Canada and other locations outside of the United States.


Conferences, Seminars and Lectures

Autumn Post Keynesian Economics Study Group

Call for Participants
Unemployment: Recent Macroeconomic Performance and Policy

Date: Friday 19th November 2004
Time: 4.00 - 17.30 p.m.
Venue: Queen Anne Court 063 (Council Room),
University of Greenwich Maritime
Greenwich Campus, Old Royal Naval
College, Park Row, Greenwich,
London SE10 9LS, UK
GeneralTheme: Unemployment: Recent Macroeconomic
Performance and Policy Implications
For detailed information: autumn.doc

Seminar in Political Economy

Faculty Seminar in Political Economy at Queens'
sponsored by the Cambridge Political Economy Society Trust

Michaelmas term schedule 2005-2006

Tue 19th Oct Prof Ajit Singh
Queens' College and Faculty of Economics & Politics University of Cambridge
"India's Rising: Myth or Reality?"

Tue 9th Nov Prof Philip Arestis
Cambridge Centre for Economic & Public Policy Research University of Cambridge
"New Consensus Monetary Policy: An Assessment"

Tue 16th Nov Prof Jonathan Temple
Department of Economics, Bristol University
"Aspects of Growth in Dual Economies"

Tue 30th Nov Prof Keith Cowling
Department of Economics, University of Warwick
"Prosperity, Depression and Modern Capitalism"

All seminars will take place at 8:30 PM in the Old Senior Combination Room at Queens'Research students and Faculty are welcome.
John Eatwell, Ajit Singh, Philip Arestis, Mark Roberts, Murray Millgate, Andy Cosh, Christos Pitelis.
All queries concerning the seminars should be directed to: Dr Mark Roberts, New Hall, Cambridge. CB3 0DF. (e-mail:

Cambridge Realist Workshop

The provisional programme of the Cambridge Realist Workshop for the Michaelmas Term. The workshop is at the CRASSH seminar rooms in Mill Lane. A map showing how to get there is found on the workshop website at: The workshops, which take place every Monday evening, will run from 8pm until about 10pm, but drinks are available from 7:30pm. The programme for this Michaelmas 2004 Term is shown below:


October 11
Tony Lawson
“Tensions in Modern Economics: An Explanation and Resolution”

October 18
Tony Lawson
“Doing Economics Differently”

October 25
Geoff Hodgson (University of Hertfordshire)
“What are institutions?”

November 01
Clive Lawson
“Technology and the Bad Life”

November 08
Shaun Hargreaves-Heap (University of East Anglia)
“Critical Realism and the Heterodox Tradition in Economics”

November 15
Stephen Dunn (Stanford University)
“The Realist Approach of J.K. Galbraith”

November 22
Stephen Pratten (Kings College, London)
“Can we explain social reality without resorting to fictions? Abstraction, idealisation and isolationism in economic theory”

November 29
To be announced

8th Workshop of the Research Network “Alternative Conceptions of Macroeconomics Policies under the Conditions of Unemployment, Globalisation and High Public Debt on Wages, Distribution and Growth

For detailed information: 8 Workshop Final Programme.pdf


Job Postings for Heterodox Economists

University of Missouri-Kansas City

A1 General Economics

The Department of Economics seeks applicants for a tenure track position, at any level, beginning in academic year 2005-06. Acceptable candidates will have a strong interdisciplinary interest. A teaching and research interest in labor or urban and community development would strengthen the application. Other fields will also be considered, especially those related to applied microeconomics or to international economics. Responsibilities include graduate and undergraduate instruction, active participation in the interdisciplinary PhD program, high quality research and a commitment to fostering development of departmental activities. The Department is committed to pluralism and includes heterodox approaches at all degree levels.
A PhD in economics required. The candidate will be involved in the grant research efforts of the Center for Economic Information and the Center for Full Employment and Price Stability. Applicants should send a letter of application, curriculum vita, sample publications or other evidence of teaching and/or research accomplishments, and three letters of recommendation. Review of applications will begin on November 1, 2004. Filling this position is contingent on funding. An equal opportunity employer. CONTACT: Dr. James Sturgeon, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, 64110. ( Department description at


Portland State University

E0 Macroeconomics

One year Visiting Assistant Professor opening--with possible one-year renewal--for candidate with teaching fields that include macroeconomics at the introductory, intermediate and master’s level. Helpful but not necessary would be the ability to contribute in other areas including American economic history, econometrics, regional economic development and others. Candidate should display exceptional ability in classroom teaching to a diverse student body at an urban university campus. Ph.D. preferred, will consider exceptional candidates who are A.B.D. or experienced applicants. Compensation will be competitive. Portland State University is an Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity institution and welcomes applications from diverse candidates and candidates who support diversity. We will be interviewing candidates at the ASSA meetings in Philadelphia. Review of applications will begin November 15, and continue until finalists have been identified. Send curriculum vita with cover letter, writing sample, teaching evaluations or other evidence of high-caliber teaching, and 3 letters of recommendation. Position open until filled. CONTACT: Mary King, Chair, Dept. of Economics, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751.

Mary King, Professor and Chair
Economics Department
Portland State University e-mail:
P.O. Box 751 phone: 503-725-3940
Portland, OR 97207 fax: 503-725-3945

Stockton College

ECONOMICS, Assistant Professor. Tenure Track, Fall 2005.

An urban/regional economist is sought with expertise in applied policy.  Demonstrated interest in promoting economic and financial literacy is desirable.  Ph.D. is required.  Excellent teaching is expected along with strong scholarship.  All faculty are expected to teach general studies courses.  Additional duties, including student advisement, as negotiated under collective bargaining agreement.  Salary is dependent upon experience.  Screening will begin immediately and continue until the position is filled.  Send letter of application, resume, brief statements of teaching philosophy and research interests, evidence of teaching excellence, and three letters of recommendation to:  Cheryl R. Kaus, Dean of Social and Behavioral Sciences, The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 195, Pomona NJ  08240.   Stockton is an AA/EOE.

Commission for Labor Cooperation

The Commission for Labor Cooperation (CLC) is an international organization established under the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), a supplementary accord to NAFTA. The agreement commits the three signatory countries to protect labor rights, improve working conditions and living standards, and promote cooperation on labor issues across North America. The Commission is comprised of a Ministerial Council, made up of the labor ministers of the three Parties, and the CLC Secretariat, the administrative and research arm of the Commission, located in Washington, D.C.

The Commission is recruiting an experienced economist with demonstrated expertise in labor markets, especially in an international context.
Candidates must be nationals of either Canada, Mexico or the United States. The successful candidate will be expected to take up the position as soon as possible.

For detailed Information: labor.doc

Levy Institute

Research Scholar, Strategic Analysis
The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College invites applications for a Research Scholar who will work directly with a team of senior economists developing and maintaining stock/flow models that track the U.S. and world economies. Research will focus on the assessment of evolving economic situations, with stress on formulating strategic policy responses.
The successful candidate will have expertise in econometrics and macroeconomic analysis; knowledge of the flow of funds and NIPA accounts; and superb computer skills, including data and file management. A completed Ph.D. in economics is required.
Send letter of interest, current c.v., references, a detailed description of research activities, and sample papers to Deborah Treadway, Levy Economics Institute, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504. AA/EOE.

Research Scholar, The Distribution of Income and Wealth
The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College invites applications for a Research Scholar in the program on distribution of income and wealth. The scholar will collaborate with a team of economists on updating and extending the Levy Institute Measure of Economic Well-Being (see for a description and related publications) and developing analyses of well-being using the measure and its components. Given the broad nature of our measure, a wide variety of research interests can be complementary to the project.
The successful candidate will have solid quantitative skills (familiarity with analyzing survey data using SAS or Stata is a plus) and strong interest in policy issues. A completed Ph.D. is required, but candidates expecting the degree in the immediate future will also be considered. Special consideration will be given to applicants who have experience or interest in working with (a) time-use data and issues related to household production; or (b) national microdata sets relating to countries other than the U.S.
Minorities and women are encouraged to apply. Send letter of interest, current c.v., references, and sample papers to Deborah Treadway, Levy Economics Institute, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson,


Heterodox Conference Papers and Reports

The Reception of the General Theory

For detailed information: programme provisoireV3 (2).doc and which has the papers presented at the conference.

Forum:  The Spirit of Innovation/International Symposium John Kenneth Galbraith

September, 22-25, 2004 – Paris

Sponsored by the research group on Industry and Innovation (Lab.RII) of the University of Littoral Côte d’Opale  and the group IGS (Institute of Social Management), France

The first Forum The Spirit of Innovation / International Symposium John Kenneth Galbraith was held in Paris from the 22nd to the 25th September 2004. It honoured the work of John Kenneth Galbraith. The aims of this symposium were to study again the rich and eclectic thought of this great author but also, according to his approach, to put into light – and to question – today’s’ conventional wisdom, these ideas which are well received by the public, which are repeated, taught and diffused by the media and which are often very far from the economic and social reality. To improve the understanding of the economic reality aims at finding new political perspectives, but also in a context of questioning the methods of teaching economics, it aims at going beyond the traditional and often too abstract ways which cause the lack of interest of students and then of individuals for the economic and social problems of the period. These tasks have often been achieved and gave birth to strong  and rich debates within the sessions of this symposium.

To classify John Kenneth Galbraith in a predetermined school of the economic sciences has revealed to be a very difficult task: the influences of the Institutionalists, of the Keynesians and of the Marxists were emphasized  but the contributors also concluded that a Galbraithian school did not exist. However, the participants of this conference largely referred to Galbraith’s approach – which associates history and sociology to the economic analysis – and to his main contributions to the economic science: the question of power, of large corporation, financial markets and institutions as well as the analysis of traditional or new countervailing powers were at the centre of the sessions which were dealing with the economic actuality. The issue of innovation included the question of the origins of innovation and its micro or macro economic effects. It also continued the destruction of the myth of a powerful consumer (even if its learning capacity was discussed) all the more so that financial euphoria, riddled with disillusions, still obscures the perception of economic actors. The international context lead the participants to repeat that war is inherent to the functioning of capitalism, destroying resources and opening new perspectives of accumulation. Finally, the role of public institutions has been reaffirmed to support the endogenous creation of resources in developing countries and to boost new forms of co-development between countries of the North and of the South. James K. GALBRAITH’s (University of Texas) presentation “Galbraith a partisan appraisal”, his biographer one’s Richard PARKER (University of Harvard) “Where Galbraith’s ideas come from” and Paul DAVIDSON’s  (University of Tennessee) presentation “Galbraith and the Post Keynesian Economists” were the great moments of the event. The honouring presence of Madam Catherine GALBRAITH created a moving atmosphere and the lights of the American Embassy and of the Palais du Luxembourg opened and closed the conference with this strong willingness to follow on, during the next Forum the Spirit of Innovation, the exploration of this non orthodox thought.   

For the more information, see the book of abstracts : and

Heterodox Journals and Newsletters

Journal of Institutional Economics (JOIE)

The first issue of the Journal of Institutional Economics (JOIE) will appear in June 2005 and it will be published by Cambridge University Press.

JOIE will not carry short book reviews. Instead we plan to publish longer review articles of 1-4 books on a common theme. These review articles will be refereed: publication will depend on the referees' reports and the decision of the editors, like all other articles published in the journal.

I am writing to ask if you would be interested in writing such a review article for JOIE. If so, please email me a 100-500 word proposal, including details of the books to be reviewed,  the common theme involved, and the kind of arguments and avenues that you will explore in your review essay. In addition, please email a copy of your C.V..

The editors will then select the most promising and suitable proposals, and commission the review articles accordingly.

We are interested in a broad range of themes, including those that cross disciplinary boundaries. JOIE is devoted to the study of the nature, role and evolution of institutions in the economy, including firms, states, markets, money, households and other vital institutions and organizations. It welcomes contributions by all schools of thought that can contribute to our understanding of the features, development and functions of real world economic institutions and organizations.

Best wishes
Geoff Hodgson
JOIE Editor-in-Chief

For detailed information: JOIE.doc

The PERI Newsletter of Research, Policy, and Events

Political Economy Research Institute Bulletin

The PERI Newletter of Research, Policy, and Events
04.2 (October)









The Political Economy Research Institute (PERI) is based at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. For general information about PERI, please visit our website:


New Heterodox Books and Book Series

Publications from GDAE

GDAE's continuing work on critiques of cost-benefit analysis and current health and environmental regulatory debates has led to three recent publications. The first two were published by the Center for Progressive Regulation (

* In "Applying Cost-benefit Analysis to Past Decisions: Was Protecting the Environment Ever a Good Idea?", Frank Ackerman, Lisa Heinzerling, and Rachel Massey argue that the style of cost-benefit analysis of regulations currently favored in Washington would have led to rejecting most of the past successes of health and environmental regulation. Case studies examined in depth include the regulation of lead in gasoline, the decision not to dam the Grand Canyon in the 1960s, and the regulation of workplace exposure to vinyl chloride.

* In "Flimsy Firewalls: The Continuing Triumph of Efficiency over Safety and Regulating Mad Cow Risks", Frank Ackerman assists lead author Thomas McGarity, a law professor at the University of Texas, in exposing the inadequate regulation of mad cow risks in the US today. Ackerman contributed the statistical critique of a major study by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, which is widely cited as the basis for industry and government confidence that we are safe from an outbreak of mad cow disease.

* In a debate in Environmental Forum magazine (September/October 2004, reprinted by permission of the publisher), Frank Ackerman debates Maureen Cropper, James Hammitt, and Cass Sunstein on the moral issues raised by Ackerman and Heinzerling in their recent book, Priceless. While the other contributors assert that there is little or nothing wrong with monetary valuation of health and environment from a moral perspective, Ackerman emphasizes the ethically troubling assumption, built into standard cost-benefit analyses, that all public choices involve commodities rather than rights.

Peter Earl, Tim Wakeley, Business Economics:  A Contemporary Approach

Business Economics: A Contemporary Approach provides students with a practical and useful learning resource that is rooted firmly in a pragmatic and pluralist approach to economic analysis. Designed for both undergraduates and MBA students taking their first course in business economics, the text focuses on introducing students to the richness of economics as a framework for understanding business. It is structured around the changing sets of problems that decision-makers face, such as getting a firm started, keeping the firm in business despite growing competition, growing the firm and finally, rejuvenating the firm in the face of declining demand.

The book covers both mainstream and heterodox theoretical approaches: This text's starting point is how people in the real world actually make decisions. In order to illustrate this, this text covers not just orthodox (‘neoclassical') but also heterodox (behavioural/
evolutionary/Post Keynesian) perspectives, allowing the reader to appreciate the merits of various approaches.

For detailed information:


Heterodox Graduate Program

Erasmus Institute for Philosophy and Economics

The Erasmus Institute for Philosophy and Economics (EIPE) invites students to apply for its GRADUATE PROGRAMME in philosophy and economics, preferably before February 1, 2005 (later applications will be considered on a first come, first serve basis). The focus of the programme is on interdisciplinary areas where the Philosophy and Methodology of Economics, on the one hand, and Institutional Economics, on the other, meet (with particular attention paid to the new developments in science studies and to the new economics of institutions and organizations).

The programme is strongly international. Its working language is English.

Ideally, applicants have a Master's degree in economics or in philosophy, or are close to completing such a degree. Those with a strong Bachelor's degree will also be considered.

The programme is in two parts. The first part provides a one-year MPhil Degree and it can be done separately. It consists of a set of foundational courses on topics that range from the philosophy and rhetoric of both mainstream and heterodox economics to the foundations of new institutional and evolutionary economics. The core courses are currently given by Mark Blaug, John Groenewegen, Arjo Klamer, Uskali Maki, and Jack Vromen as well as visiting professors (such as, in 2000-2004, by Gregory Dow, Wade Hands, John Davis, and Claude Menard).

Overall, EIPE has some 20 Members who participate in its activities, including teaching, and whose areas of expertise cover a broad range of fields and topics, from philosophy of science, social epistemology, social ontology, and internet ethics to theories of rationality, transaction cost economics, organization theory, game theory, and cultural economics (the current list of members comprises Gerrit Antonides, Mark Blaug, Igor Douven, Sanjeev Goyal, John Groenewegen, George Hendrikse, Jeroen van den Hoven, Maarten Janssen, Arjo Klamer, Barbara Krug, Theo Kuipers, Deirdre McCloskey, Uskali Maki, Bart Nooteboom, Paivi Oinas, Laszlo Polos, Ruth Towse, Jack Vromen, Richard Whitley, Theo van Willigenburg).

The MPhil will be useful for those who want to have a solid introduction to the areas covered; those who want to upgrade their knowledge close to the frontline research on these themes; and those who want to prepare themselves for PhD research at EIPE or elsewhere.

After the MPhil, students can apply for the second part of the EIPE Programme, the PhD programme. PhD theses focus on topics related to the EIPE Research Programme "Institutions".

EIPE organizes a regular research seminar with internationally renowned experts presenting papers. It also runs a PhD seminar to provide a forum for discussion of the work in progress by its graduate students. Moreover, it organises international workshops and conferences on a wide range of topics.

For more information about the institute, the graduate programme, and application procedures see our web site: or contact the secretary of the institute, Loes van Dijk (, +31-10-408 8967).


Heterodox Associations

ADEK – Association pour le Developpement des Etudes Keynesiennes

For detailed information: adek.pdf

Heterodox Web Sites

National Jobs for All Coalition:

The National Jobs for All Coalition is committed to building a new movement for full employment at livable wages. This goal unites a diverse group of otherwise divided, single-issue constituencies. The Coalition includes individuals and organizations with a wide range of interests--workers', women's, children's and seniors' rights, civil rights, and economic justice. Others work on health care, the environment, economic conversion, are academics, social workers and lawyers, artists or simply concerned individuals. The goals of all of us would be easier to reach if there were jobs for all at decent wages.

Center for Progressive Regulation:

The Center for Progressive Regulation is a nonprofit research and educational organization of university-affiliated academics with expertise in the legal, economic, and scientific issues related to regulation of health, safety, and the environment. CPR supports regulatory action to protect health, safety, and the environment, and rejects the conservative view that government’s only function is to increase the economic efficiency of private markets. Through research and commentary, CPR seeks to inform policy debates, critique anti-regulatory research, enhance public understanding of the issues, and open the regulatory process to public scrutiny.